Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
In recent years we have witnessed a trend toward the nanoscale and even to the atomic level in many areas of science and technology, such as electronics. We can expect this trend to continue at a fast pace. However, this development is not just about making things smaller. As material properties are ultimately determined by their atomic structure, in order to understand or modify materials it is necessary to go down to the nanoscale or atomic scale. This requires an atomic force microscope.