UTMs can help analyze different mechanical properties of materials or components. Output values are, e.g. the Young’s Modulus, yield point, flexural modulus, ultimate tensile strength, strength of an adhesive bond and many more, depending on the material or part. They are therefore used to answer questions like, e.g., “How strong and stiff is my sample?”, “How much can my sample elongate or stretch?” or “How much can my sample compress or flex before breaking?” The important data derived from the answers is used by engineers in R&D and QC. Although UTMs are commonly used for testing of large-scale, robust components, they are not limited to high force/high torque applications. While classical UTMs can achieve forces up to 5000 kN depending on the model, small-scale, soft or fragile parts can also be characterized, as long as the forces and deflections involved can be accurately measured by the transducer.

Important terms and variables: (more possible)

Term | Symbol |

Young’s Modulus | E |

Shear Modulus | G |

Poisson’s ratio | ν |

Extensional viscosity | η_{E} |

Flexural Modulus | E_{Flex} |

Bulk (Compression) Modulus | K |

Engineering strain | |

Engineering stress | |

Normal force | F_{N} |

Torque | M |

Displacement | s |

Deflection angle | φ |